KENYA INTERGRATED WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE (KIWASH) CASE STUDY
The Kenya Integrated Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (KIWASH), with its primary goal being to improve the
lives and health of Kenyan citizens in nine counties through the development and management of
sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene services. These combined efforts support the implementation of
USAID's Water and Development Strategy in Kenya.
Exp Social Marketing has been engaged as a strategic communications partner under Output 1: Market-
Based WASH Service Delivery Models Scaled Up, on sustainable improvements to clean water and
sanitation services for Kenyan households.
Improved access to WASH services and improved hygiene for more than 1,000,000 people
Improved access to nutrition services
Women of reproductive age as the primary target since they are the key custodians of WASH behaviors at household level.
Men as a secondary target as the decision makers at both the household and community levels
Youth and children were targeted for their influence on parents and communities leveraging on pestering power.
Stakeholder groups such as community gatekeepers, traditional leaders, religious leaders, political leaders, county and sub county officials to catalyze change within the target communities.
Exp's applied the Sixth Sense ™ Tool in designing the KIWASH Campaign.
The KIWASH marketing strategy was based on evidence and insights collected through a formative
assessment. The KIWASH BCC strategy focused on safe water, latrine use and hand washing, key
components to hygiene behaviors.
Baseline - Formative Assessment:
A successful project is built on evidence from relative community /individual behaviour, which provided the basis of the communication strategy through three techniques
“DAY IN THE LIFE” Diary¹ Exp BCO's gathered the data which was analyzed and used to informs the strategy development
Application of the sixth Sense Intervention™ process
Activity 1: Selection of Behavior Change Observers (BCO's)
To conduct the immersions, Exp Social Marketing recruited Behaviour Change Communication Observers
whose selection criteria was to be educated to tertiary level i.e. (college students and graduate) the
BCO's were trained on formative assessment techniques, such as ETL, observation and document of
target audience's actions, feelings or thoughts, through the day - Experiencing a day in the life from start
to finish, discussing key behaviours, recording what the respondent said they did and observing the
actual behavior of the respondents.
Activity 2: Formative Assessment
Exp's formative research targeted all households in rural and semi-urban areas within the four clusters.
All household members were subjected to the immersion process, however adult members of the
households were relied on for key information.
The study was divided in two:
A: Household immersions:
Five households were selected in every County to host the BCO's for at
least 24 hours. A total of 40 households were engaged in the eight counties during the formative
assessment Sampling was employed and the selection of households for the immersion component was
based on the guidelines below:
Willingness to host a behavior change ambassador
Presence of at least one adult member of the household throughout the immersion period
Literacy levels of household heads. The BCO's included household heads who were either literate or
B Community discussions:
Two community discussion were held in each County with adult male and
female members of the counties, these were identified using the snowball sampling technique; Gender
balance and representation of community opinion leaders was given consideration during selection of the
forum participants. The Community Discussions offered a platform to discover how groups (male and
female) think, how they feel about issues which need to address by the KIWASH project. Community
Discussions were useful in obtaining detailed information about personal and group feelings as they
provide broader range of information.
The Sixth Sense Intervention™ Tool
The KIWASH marketing strategy was based on evidence and insights collected through a formative
assessment. Exp's applied the Sixth Sense ™ Tool in designing the KIWASH Campaign.
The KIWASH BCC strategy focused on safe water, latrine use and hand washing, key components to
Activity 3: Strategic Plan Development and Campaign Design
Based on the evidence and insights collected during the formative assessment, Exp applied the Sixth
Sense ™ Tool to develop the KIWASH a marketing strategy for each of the clusters this formed a basis for
the campaign design. The campaign strategy was based on tested maxims for successful behavior change
campaigns that address:
Creating an enabled environment, through conversations on WASH through IPC
Driving Access by linking to available sanitation marketing options.
Demand-Driven Behavior Change through IPC activities
The Behaviour Change Ecosystem
Behaviour change happens in a behavioural ecosystem to enable the change and the behavioral ecosystem
consists of three key components namely environment, demand and access.
Enabling the environment emphasised on community “ownership, participation and empowerment” in line
with program objective.
Creating an enabled Environment
Socio-cultural environment was a key influencer of human behaviour because behaviour thrives in an
environment that accommodates the desired new behaviour. Creating an enabled environment through
engagement and empowerment of all Stakeholders, gatekeepers and Key Opinion Formers (K.O.F.s) is
therefore a pre-requisite in the design and implementation of an effective BCC campaign.
Access to approaches, tools and catalysts of change, commodities, services, and emotional support, is
critical to behavior change success. Without access to physical and emotional 'catalysts' of change,
actors are disempowered, and change would limit. Apart from physical access to WASH facilities that will
be addressed by this programme, it is important to create psychological access among the target
communities to drive good WASH behaviors. This will be driven through awareness creation and barrier
neutralization at community and individual levels. The main activities in this component involved mass,
mid mass and IPC -interpersonal communication with the target audience at various touch points.
Demand-Driven Behaviour Change
The behaviour change process critical in creating demand included: Awareness, Personal Relevance and
Internalization. Awareness formed the first stage of the campaign, once the target is 'aware' of the
intervention the campaign can then start to build relevance, for sustainability and success, behaviour
change it cannot be imposed on people, but should be demanded by the people.
Exp proposed a 360º integrated campaign in the nine target counties. The activities complemented each
other and were conducted at different connection points at households, markets and small group forums.
Through the integrated campaign we created awareness and demand for uptake of the desired
behaviour. Exp aligned the activities into three phases: Inception, Implementation and closing out
respectively. To monitor progress with the aim of achieving success, Exp designed monitoring tool to
assess awareness, uptake and impact in the nine Counties of the project. Exp organized its activities in
the following sequence:
Phase 1- Inception
Community Entry: Involvement of the selected communities, stakeholders leading to ownership,
sustainability and probability of success, Design and layout of campaign material: Exp's created and
developed the campaign material in close collaboration with DAI, MoH and the community. Pre-testing of
brand and campaign materials: Exp conducted pre-testing of the messages and campaign materials
with the target communities and stakeholders.
Mapping: Mapping/pre-visits was done in the target areas with help of MOH, after the stakeholder meetings
led by community teams to obtain information on the number of community units and other important
Training: Exp will conducted trainings for implementing teams at two levels:
Level 1: Training of Exp Field Coordinators. Level 2: Exp worked with MoH to recruit end line implementers
and to train the help of relevant county level.
Exp Social Marketing tested all elements live, in situ. To ensure consistency in messaging, Exp designed
activity & CHV guides/scripts to be used by end line implementers:
Community forums: Small group sessions comprising of between 20-30 participants mobilized and hosted by opinion leaders who pledge support.
Household visits: Exp trained CHV's carried out household visits, where they checked on sanitationstatus, ownership of an improved latrine, use of safe water, consistent and correct handwashing.
Mid mass- Market day activities: As follow on to support IPC activities Exp used edutainment carried out by a trained team on WASH communications to engage the larger community during market day, we held 12 market day activities reaching 10,000 persons across the nine Counties.
Mass engagement: to enhance rate of recall and for sustainability Exp identified strategic walls and worked with local artists to paint wall the messages translated to the local dialect.
Capacity building: Exp Social Marketing trained 1084 end line implementers CHV's, CHA's and PHO's on
current WASH behaviours, objectives of the KIWASH project, BCC (behaviour change communication),
ETL (Education through listening) a community engagement technique.
Through IPC activities, Exp reached 332,249 people, within the nine target counties, with WASH messages over a period of two years.
Through household activities, Exp reached 37, 972 (households) with a population of 265,789.
Population reached with WASH messaging:
Water: Use of safe water includes adoption of a water treatment method, storage and consumption of treated/safe water and use of treated water to clean vegetables and fruits at household. 92% of households engaged took up water treatment using an agent (Aqua guard) and consume safe water
Sanitation: Adoption of basic latrine by 79% of households visited
Hygiene: Correct and consistent hand washing with soap and running water, 86.4% of HH visited adopted a hand washing facilities - Tippy Taps.